Liquid biopsy blood test for cancer

biopsy2Broadcaster: Sky News

Year: 2018

Genre: News Package

Duration: 3 mins

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/126404

A Sky News report discusses new research conducted in Cleveland, Ohio which promises to offer a simple blood test offering diagnosis of a variety of cancers much earlier than currently possible. The liquid biopsy looks at DNA circulating in the blood. At present the research is encouraging proof-of-principle rather than being appropriate for the clinic – the accuracy of the test is not sufficiently reliable to be used in diagnosis without the risk of false positives or negatives.

That stated, however, the new test did seem most accurate for predicting pancreatic and ovarian cancers which are currently amongst those that are the hardest to diagnose sufficiently early to allow for effective treatment to be initiated.

At present, the research being reported was shared as a conference presentation rather than as a peer-reviewed paper. Having said that, however, there is already much excitement about the use of liquid biopsies to spot “biomarkers” for cancer. See this link for a 2013 review article Liquid biopsy: monitoring cancer-genetics in the blood .

The Sky News clip includes interviews with Annie Jones whose mum died from pancreatic cancer, and Justine Alford from Cancer Research UK. It could be used in teaching to illustrate the growing importance of genomic approaches to cancer diagnosis and treatment.

This link offers further coverage of the Cleveland research from The Scientist (which itself has further links to coverage in UK newspapers).

 

Advertisements

John Burn and the genetics of cancer (The Life Scientific)

bob audioBroadcaster: Radio 4

Year: 2018

Genre: Conversation about science and working as a scientist

Duration: 28 minutes

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/120149
and on iPlayer at http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09rxr3t

The Life Scientific is a regular series on Radio 4, in which Physicist Jim Al-Khalili (and regular media contributor) talks to other leading scientists about their work. It is always an interesting listen because it peels away the false impression that science is a coldly calculated process to reveal some of the human experience involved in conducting research.

In February 2018, Prof Al-Khalili spoke with clinical geneticist Sir John Burn about his life and work. Prof Burn manages to juggle a number of roles; he is Professor of Clinical Genetics at Newcastle University, where he combines basic science research at the Life Science Centre, a ground-breaking research institute he co-founded, with clinical work at Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. He is also the Genetics Lead for the UK National Institute of Health Research and chairs spin-out company QuantuMDx, which is developing bedside DNA testing kits that could offer diagnosis in a matter of minutes.

There were many aspects of this episode that make listening to it half an hour well spent for any student of molecular bioscience. In particular, the programme gives a beautiful insight into the impact that genetics and DNA sequencing is playing in contemporary medicine (and the bigger role yet to come). Burn has been a pioneer of genetic testing in medicine and an enthusiast for benefits of routine genomic testing to facilitate personalised medicine (see, for example, his 2013 British Medical Journal article Should we sequence everyone’s genome? Yes). Continue reading

Is burnt toast *really* a cancer threat? (News)

toastNew “go for gold” advice from the Food Standards Agency is warning people not to overcook foods such as roast potatoes, chips and toast, as it increases their risk of cancer. The story was widely reported in the press on 23rd January 2017 (e.g. Browned toast and potatoes are ‘potential cancer risk’, say food scientists).

Useful broadcast media coverage includes:

BBC News at One: Is burnt toast a cancer risk?
URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/87866
(2 mins 40)

Channel 4 News: Feeling the burn URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/87907
(3 mins)

Today (BBC Radio 4): Can overdone toast be a cancer risk?
URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/87258
(4 mins 30)

Concern focuses on acrylamide, a chemical that is naturally produced when starchy foods (particularly those rich the amino acid asparagine, such as potatoes and cereals) are cooked at high temperatures (see Mottram et al and Stadler et al for underlying science, which actually dates from 2002). Continue reading

Second Opinion: Review of 2016 health news

secondopinionBroadcaster: BBC2

Year: 2017

Genre: Humour, Magazine

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/85802

Review by June Adams and Eunice Muruako

Dr Xand van Tulleken hosts this satirical show  (30 mins) taking a look back at some health news from 2016. He elaborates on potentially misleading news headlines and explains the research behind them. Tulleken is keen to push the message that the unsubstantiated claims of pseudo-science detract from the credibility of real science that could actually help people. The humorously presented topics range from scaremongering health claims and celebrity endorsed miracle cures, to squat toilets and cigarette packaging; he even uses cheese as a visual aid to illustrate the factors behind the junior doctors’ strikes.

Proton or photon? Cancer-bashing particles

Radiotherapy1Broadcaster: BBC One

Year: 2016

Genre: News

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/363299

Review by Ella Yabsley

A study published on the Lancet Oncology website in January 2016 reported that proton beam therapy was as effective as traditional photon radiotherapy for the treatment of paediatric medulloblastoma (a childhood brain cancer). The paper also suggests proton radiotherapy reduces toxicity towards normal tissues (compared to photon radiotherapy) and could improve long-term health outcomes for children with malignant brain cancer. At the present time, the NHS are paying for eligible patients to receive proton treatment abroad. From 2019, two new NHS proton beam therapy facilities will be opened in London and Manchester (more by private institutions).

This video file (11 mins), a combination of several shorter pieces from Breakfast News, gives background to the development including an interview with a paediatric oncologist who explains what the study does, and does not, show. It is a (relatively) large study but the observations appear not to be a surprise to those working in the field; the interest may be linked to the controversy surrounding the Ashya King case. Continue reading

Ablation, Ibrutinib & PSA testing (Curing Cancer)

Add some description here

In a clinical setting; MRI Imaging is routinely used to identify tumour locations in preparation for treatments like microwave ablation (MWA) or high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)

Broadcaster: Channel 4

Year: 2014

Genre: Documentary

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/350267

Review by Ella Yabsley

The Curing Cancer documentary outlines in simple terms how cancer occurs. I do not recommend watching the entire hour-long episode from the Cutting Edge series as it only briefly covers certain areas and contains anecdotal sections which are irrelevant for educational purposes. This 14 minute clip (spliced together from shorter segments in the programme) could serve as a brief introduction to cancer cell biology.

If you already have a more advanced knowledge of cancer biology then I recommend skipping to the four specific cases below (rather than watching the longer clip). Each case describes and demonstrates a different cancer treatment in action; Ibrutinib, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)  and microwave ablation (MWA). Case 2 describes the diagnosis techniques prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and biopsy extraction.

Watching the cases below could be valuable if you are taking a cancer biology module and want to demonstrate knowledge of emerging therapies. Additionally, please take a look at this post which highlights a recent BBC News item on immunotherapy techniques used for treating melanoma (skin cancer).

Continue reading

Reproduction (Dara O Briain’s Science Club)

The programme includes an engaging animated history of our understanding of inheritance

The programme includes an engaging animated history of our understanding of inheritance

Broadcaster: BBC 2

Year: 2012

Genre: Magazine show

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/298484

Review by Amy Evans

In 2012 well-known comedian (and theoretical physics graduate) Dara Ó Briain launched his eponymous Science Club. This first episode of season 1 focuses on reproduction and inheritance, including the importance of bicycles to human development. Although the show’s approach is light-hearted and humorous, there is actually a lot of information given about genetics and key speakers, such as leading geneticist Steve Jones, are involved so that the information given is up to date (at the time of showing). The show is aimed at viewers who have a relatively basic initial knowledge, but elements of it might be good to watch as a re-cap when starting new modules.

Highlights include:

A brief history of genetics (2:46, starting at 02:23, see this clip) a nice animation, summarising our understanding of inheritance from Aristotle via van Leeuwenhoek, Bakewell, Mendel and Morgan and ending with elucidation of the double helix by Watson and Crick.

Does sex work? An interview with Professor Steve Jones.  Ó Briain and Jones discuss the inefficiencies of sexual reproduction, especially from the female perspective. Jones argues that invention of the bicycle is the most important step in human evolution, because it allowed intermingling of the gene pools with residents of the next village. Now, across the world, we are becoming much less isolated genetically. After a consideration of the history of the bicycle, they return to discussing the importance of genetic diversity. Generally speaking the marital distance, that is the geographical distance between the birthplace of partners relative to the distance between the birthplaces of their respective parents, gets greater generation by generation. Jones explains that genetic health may improve as we are less likely to encounter recessive mutations common within a subpopulation (for example, if you want to avoid having a child with cystic fibrosis breed with someone from Nigeria). Continue reading

Cancer immunotherapy breakthrough (BBC News)

“Society is going to have to make a judgement on what value it puts on extending the lives of cancer patients against all the other demands on the NHS”

Broadcaster: BBC 1

Year: 2015

Genre: News

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/298571

On 1st June 2015, there was quite a large amount of coverage of a recent clinical trial reported to have had dramatic effects on the survival rates of patients with melanoma (a form of skin cancer). The reason this particular clip (4:45) stands out as useful for teaching is the combination of a clear explanation of what the new cancer immunotherapy drugs are doing, but also the difficult decisions to be made in the light of a growing number of exciting but expensive new drugs for cancer. What price can a health service afford to pay to extend one person’s life when, with a finite budget, buying their medicine means that someone elsewhere in the system will miss out on their treatment instead?

For more on this story see this link (BBC website).

Screening for Ovarian Cancer

The new test looks for expression of a particular protein in the blood

The new test looks for expression of a particular protein in the blood

Broadcaster: Sky News

Year: 2015

Genre: News

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/293450

Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate because symptoms are often vague, allowing the disease to develop before it is properly diagnosed. This 2.4 minute clip from is from Sky News (though the same story was widely covered on other outlets on the same day). The piece reports findings from a new study in which a blood test looks for levels of a certain biomarker, a protein called CA125. The crucial thing in this study, which may pave the way for establishment of a screening programme, was the benefit of annual checks on the level of CA125 in a patient’s blood rather than a one-off check. It seems that absolute levels of the protein can be quite variable between different women, but a change in the level is a much more significant indicator of underlying developments. The approach of screening blood for cancer-related biomarkers is an emerging area in cancer treatment and might allow for screening for other variants too, such as prostate cancer.

Use of Organoids in Cancer Research (C4 News)

Hayley Francies from the Sanger explains to Channel 4 reporter Tom Clark how the organoids are a more realistic tool for cancer research than typical monolayer cells

Hayley Francies from the Sanger explains to Channel 4 reporter Tom Clark how the organoids are a more realistic tool for cancer research than typical monolayer cells

Broadcaster: Channel 4

Year: 2015

Genre: News

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/294015

This 3.2 minute clip from Channel 4 looks at the use of organoids. Scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have, for the first time, grown tumours from 20 different colon cancer patients using matrigel to encourage the cells to form 3D “miniorgans” rather than growing in a monolayer as is more typical for cultured cells. Each organoid is different, reflecting the genetic errors in the donor, effectively a copy of the individual patients cancer grown in the lab. As a result a collection of tissues suitable for screening of existing and new drugs have been generated which may help both to select the most suitable drug for a given patient but also to improve our understanding of the cancers.