Quarantine: a case study

venningBroadcaster: BBC2

Year: 2017

Genre: Sport commentary, discussion

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/101715

During the 2017 World Athletics Championships in London an outbreak of norovirus amongst the competitors raised an interesting case study regarding the rights and wrongs of quarantine.

On Monday 7th August, Botswana sprinter Isaac Makwala withdrew from the 200 metres heats citing illness. The following day he turned up at the stadium to compete in the 400 metres final, to find that his accreditation had been revoked on the grounds that he was still within the time period when he needed to be in isolation to avoid infecting other people.

A confusing evening of claim and counterclaim culminated in Pam Venning, Head of Medicine for the IAAF, appearing in the stadium studio being grilled by host Gabby Logan and former athletes Paula Radcliffe, Denise Lewis and Michael Johnson about the decision to ban Makwala (and the way that communication had been handled).

This clip (just over 15 minutes) could be a useful resource for examining the tensions between personal autonomy and public health in the context of infectious diseases. As Onora O’Neill notes in her book Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics, restricting the movement of someone on grounds that they are a potential health risk to others is one of the classic examples that personal autonomy is not a universal right in the way that is sometimes portrayed.

Whilst Dr Venning outlines the epidemiological rationale for keeping infected athletes, including Makwala, away from the other competitors, the former athletes in the studio display their empathy for the sprinter; he’s been training for this, he says he’s ok today, so why can’t he compete?

A news item about the case (broadcast on BBC1 at about the same time as the studio discussion above) can be reached via this link https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/101736

If you have longer to get into the issues associated with quarantine, I recommend the Belgian series Cordon or, if you can’t cope with the sub-titles in the original, with the inferior American copy Containment.

Should you complete a course of antibiotics?

flemingBroadcaster: BBC1 & Sky News

Year: 2017

Genre: News package

URLs:
(1) https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/101304
(2) https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/101301

Should you complete a course of antibiotics or stop taking them as soon as you feel better? Received wisdom, and current policy, is that you ought to continue the course to ensure that the bacteria causing the problem have been eliminated. However, a new paper The antibiotic course has had its day in the British Medical Journal argues that there is no evidence base for the existing practice and, given the known correlation between exposure to antibiotics and the development of resistance, we ought – as a bare minimum – to be conducting appropriately-controlled trials to examine the impacts (good or bad) of recommending shorter treatment regimes.

The paper received a variety of coverage in both the print and broadcast media. The two links here are to discussion of the work on the BBC Six O’clock News (1, 2.2 mins) and Sky News (2, 2.4 mins). Both clips have their own merits, but if you want to pick one then, on this occasion, I’d go with the Sky News clip. Both packages include historical footage of Alexander Fleming, but the Sky piece has more thorough explanation of the arguments.

For further coverage see my Journal of the Left-Handed Biochemist post on the paper, and this article from the Daily Telegraph.

Meeting the demand for meat

Year: 2016

Broadcaster: BBC 1

Genre: Documentary

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/86970

Full original programme URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0B9E458F?bcast=121120092

Review by June Adams

The current worldwide demand for meat is huge, and growing faster than production rates can keep up with. How will we stop our commercial supply of meat from running out?

One way that farmers have tried to tackle the beef shortage is by producing cows that give more meat.  Belgian blues are a type of cow that has been specially bred to have 20% more muscle than the average cow, equating to 900 more quarter pounders. They can be reared to weigh up to one tonne! However, the extreme looking breed is controversial and difficult to farm. Belgian blue cows are unable to give birth naturally, and the calves often suffer from joint and heart problems. Is there a way to increase meat production without overburdening livestock?

In this five minute clip from the series Tomorrow’s Food, Professor Mark Post has managed to grow a burger in a lab by extracting stem cells from a tiny piece of meat, which then multiplied for 8 weeks in an incubator to make new muscle tissue. It takes 30 billion cells to make a single burger. The process is faster and may require less energy than rearing a whole cow, but it produces a very small amount of meat that costs a lot; a lab-grown burger costs over $200,000. In order to reduce costs to make the process viable on the market, production would need to be scaled up drastically – Olympic swimming pool sized incubation tanks! With some work, hopefully lab-grown burgers will become cheap enough to be sold commercially in less than 10 years.

World’s first lab-grown burger is eaten in London (5th August 2013) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23576143

Antibiotics: Britain’s greatest invention?

fleming

Invention or discovery? The case is put that sufficient work needed to be done after Fleming’s observation that the Penicillium mould killed bacteria

Broadcaster: BBC2

Year: 2017

Genre: Factual

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/99491

This clips (8:50) involves former newsreader Angela Rippon putting the case for antibiotics to be the winner of a poll to identify Britain’s Greatest Invention. She has a vested interest in the choice, having been saved from TB as a child. All other inventions being considered (the jet engine, steam engine, fridge, television, mobile phone and concrete) pale into insignificance, she argues, as you cannot benefit from the other inventions suggested if you are dead. This argument may have prevailed, as antibiotics were declared the winner on the night.

In truth this is not a particularly great clip. The opening gambit that “antibiotics literally kill bacteria” is a simplification and the popular myths surrounding the role played by Alexander Fleming are trotted out. There are, however, two features that might make this worth sharing with students.

The first is the debate over whether antibiotics are a discovery or an invention. This is an example of a broader debate about whether natural products are “invented” (this was also at the heart, for example, of the tensions regarding the legitimacy of patenting human genes). Rippon suggests there was sufficient need to technological innovation for antibiotics to be an invention not a discovery. I would have to concur with this view, especially since the fluoroquinolones, my favourite family of “antibiotics”, are in fact entirely man-made. Continue reading

Bacteriophage therapy (BBC News)

marthacBroadcaster: BBC News (and BBC 1)

Year: 2017

Genre: News

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/99430

There has been growing concern about antibiotic resistance over recent years. One alternative is to use bacteriophage (phage), viruses that attack bacteria. The idea is not new, it was actively pursued in the former Soviet Union, but is now being investigated in a rigorous way in western countries.

In this 2.5 minute news story, Martha Clokie from the University of Leicester discusses the potential to use freeze-dried phage in place of antibiotics. The initial trials are due to take place with farm pigs.

For more on this story follow this link.

For other programmes on phage therapy follow this link.

The making of Quorn (Tomorrow’s Food)

Broadcaster: BBC 1

Year: 2016

Genre: Documentary

URLs:
Part 1 – https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/86966 (3.32 mins)
Part 2 – https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/86968 (3:10 mins)

Original programme URL:  https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/95311 (60 mins)

Review by June Adams

Around one third of UK households already buy meat alternatives, and the market is still rising as meat becomes more expensive. Being a versatile, nutritional, and super efficient meat alternative, could Quorn be the food of the future?

In two short sections from the third episode of his series Tomorrow’s Food, comedian turned science presenter Dara Ó Briain walks us through the process.

Production of Quorn starts with a single speck of freeze-dried fungus (Fusarium venenatum), reawakened and grown in a sugar-nutrient solution. In less than a week, it will grow to fill two ten-storey towers with 45 thousand tonnes of mycoprotein. Producing Quorn is ten times more efficient than rearing animals for meat, and contains less than half the calories and fat of beef mince and 78 times less cholesterol.

Turning the raw protein into edible products means further processing to give it the flavour and texture of meat. Freezing changes texture from a dough-like consistency to fibrous, as the ice crystals create fibrous bundles. Ingredients mixed in with Quorn before it is frozen creates the different flavours, and recipes can be tailored to suit the tastes of different countries, making Quorn incredibly versatile.

This clip might be of interest to microbiology or food technology students.

Phage therapy as an alternative antibiotics

phage3Broadcaster: BBC2

Year: 2016

Genre: Magazine

Length: 7 mins 17 secs

URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/89648

The growing menace of antibiotic resistance has been the subject of increasing press attention in recent years. In this clip from the BBC’s medical magazine show Trust Me I’m A Doctor surgeon Gabriel Weston investigates a potential alternative to antibiotics, the use of bacteriophage in an approach known as Phage Therapy. This apparently novel approach has actually been the subject of extensive research over many decades in the former Soviet Union, especially in the Republic of Georgia. Patients whose diseases are proving resistance to more traditional Western treatments based on antibiotics are now travelling to the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi to try this alternative. Continue reading

Tackling tuberculosis (Countryfile)

cowtbBroadcaster: BBC1
Year: 2016
Genre: Magazine

URLs: (full episode) https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0D9D7D7F
Clip 1 (6:43): https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/23517
Clip2 (6:16): https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/23518

The BBC’s rural affairs programme Countryfile (first broadcast on 9th October 2016) looked at ongoing issues with TB infection cattle populations. The topic was covered in two sections. The first focuses on the current tests for TB infection. The second looks more closely at the science being used to develop new tests and better vaccines against TB. Continue reading

TB: Return of the Plague

TB documentary screenshot

Swaziland has declared the current TB epidemic a national emergency

Broadcaster: BBC 4

Year: 2014

Genre: Documentary

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/351052

Reviewed by Emma Sterling

“It’s very difficult to cure XDR because we’re just giving what we have on the table. The reality of XDR is that it’s almost incurable.”

(WARNING: Distressing content): BBC 4’s long-format (90 minute) documentary TB: Return of the Plague, reports on the fight against tuberculosis (TB) in Swaziland, the country with the highest rate of infection in the world. Continue reading

Are we entering a post-antibiotic era?

"Eat your Christmas dinner and don't worry"

“Eat your Christmas dinner and don’t worry”

Broadcaster: BBC News

Year: 2015

Genre: News

URL: http://bobnational.net/record/342114

Review by Emma Sterling

Bacteria resistant to the “last resort” antibiotic colistin have been found in the UK. Public Health England says the threat to human health is low. Clive Myrie speaks to health correspondent James Gallagher in this 2 minute clip.

The colistin-resistant bacteria were first reported on a farm in China in November 2015 and have since been found in Africa and other parts of Europe. Chinese researchers have found the mcr-1 ­gene that is responsible for this resistance.

Gallagher stresses that this does not mean these bacteria are unbeatable or that a bacterial apocalypse is nigh (we hope his “Eat your Christmas dinner and don’t worry” does not become the antibacterial version of Michael Fish’s famous promise that a hurricane was not on the way). Those that are resistant to colistin are currently susceptible to other antibiotics, but the discovery raises the spectre of an entirely resistant infection. If this was to occur then routine surgery and cancer therapies might be rendered unsafe.

For more on the story see the BBC News website, and for more scientific detail this article from Nature.