Broadcaster: BBC 1
Full original programme URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0B9E458F?bcast=121120092
Review by June Adams
The current worldwide demand for meat is huge, and growing faster than production rates can keep up with. How will we stop our commercial supply of meat from running out?
One way that farmers have tried to tackle the beef shortage is by producing cows that give more meat. Belgian blues are a type of cow that has been specially bred to have 20% more muscle than the average cow, equating to 900 more quarter pounders. They can be reared to weigh up to one tonne! However, the extreme looking breed is controversial and difficult to farm. Belgian blue cows are unable to give birth naturally, and the calves often suffer from joint and heart problems. Is there a way to increase meat production without overburdening livestock?
In this five minute clip from the series Tomorrow’s Food, Professor Mark Post has managed to grow a burger in a lab by extracting stem cells from a tiny piece of meat, which then multiplied for 8 weeks in an incubator to make new muscle tissue. It takes 30 billion cells to make a single burger. The process is faster and may require less energy than rearing a whole cow, but it produces a very small amount of meat that costs a lot; a lab-grown burger costs over $200,000. In order to reduce costs to make the process viable on the market, production would need to be scaled up drastically – Olympic swimming pool sized incubation tanks! With some work, hopefully lab-grown burgers will become cheap enough to be sold commercially in less than 10 years.
World’s first lab-grown burger is eaten in London (5th August 2013) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23576143
Invention or discovery? The case is put that sufficient work needed to be done after Fleming’s observation that the Penicillium mould killed bacteria
This clips (8:50) involves former newsreader Angela Rippon putting the case for antibiotics to be the winner of a poll to identify Britain’s Greatest Invention. She has a vested interest in the choice, having been saved from TB as a child. All other inventions being considered (the jet engine, steam engine, fridge, television, mobile phone and concrete) pale into insignificance, she argues, as you cannot benefit from the other inventions suggested if you are dead. This argument may have prevailed, as antibiotics were declared the winner on the night.
In truth this is not a particularly great clip. The opening gambit that “antibiotics literally kill bacteria” is a simplification and the popular myths surrounding the role played by Alexander Fleming are trotted out. There are, however, two features that might make this worth sharing with students.
The first is the debate over whether antibiotics are a discovery or an invention. This is an example of a broader debate about whether natural products are “invented” (this was also at the heart, for example, of the tensions regarding the legitimacy of patenting human genes). Rippon suggests there was sufficient need to technological innovation for antibiotics to be an invention not a discovery. I would have to concur with this view, especially since the fluoroquinolones, my favourite family of “antibiotics”, are in fact entirely man-made. Continue reading
Broadcaster: BBC News (and BBC 1)
There has been growing concern about antibiotic resistance over recent years. One alternative is to use bacteriophage (phage), viruses that attack bacteria. The idea is not new, it was actively pursued in the former Soviet Union, but is now being investigated in a rigorous way in western countries.
In this 2.5 minute news story, Martha Clokie from the University of Leicester discusses the potential to use freeze-dried phage in place of antibiotics. The initial trials are due to take place with farm pigs.
For more on this story follow this link.
For other programmes on phage therapy follow this link.
Broadcaster: BBC 1
Part 1 – https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/86966 (3.32 mins)
Part 2 – https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/86968 (3:10 mins)
Original programme URL: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/95311 (60 mins)
Review by June Adams
Around one third of UK households already buy meat alternatives, and the market is still rising as meat becomes more expensive. Being a versatile, nutritional, and super efficient meat alternative, could Quorn be the food of the future?
In two short sections from the third episode of his series Tomorrow’s Food, comedian turned science presenter Dara Ó Briain walks us through the process.
Production of Quorn starts with a single speck of freeze-dried fungus (Fusarium venenatum), reawakened and grown in a sugar-nutrient solution. In less than a week, it will grow to fill two ten-storey towers with 45 thousand tonnes of mycoprotein. Producing Quorn is ten times more efficient than rearing animals for meat, and contains less than half the calories and fat of beef mince and 78 times less cholesterol.
Turning the raw protein into edible products means further processing to give it the flavour and texture of meat. Freezing changes texture from a dough-like consistency to fibrous, as the ice crystals create fibrous bundles. Ingredients mixed in with Quorn before it is frozen creates the different flavours, and recipes can be tailored to suit the tastes of different countries, making Quorn incredibly versatile.
This clip might be of interest to microbiology or food technology students.
Length: 7 mins 17 secs
The growing menace of antibiotic resistance has been the subject of increasing press attention in recent years. In this clip from the BBC’s medical magazine show Trust Me I’m A Doctor surgeon Gabriel Weston investigates a potential alternative to antibiotics, the use of bacteriophage in an approach known as Phage Therapy. This apparently novel approach has actually been the subject of extensive research over many decades in the former Soviet Union, especially in the Republic of Georgia. Patients whose diseases are proving resistance to more traditional Western treatments based on antibiotics are now travelling to the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi to try this alternative. Continue reading
URLs: (full episode) https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/0D9D7D7F
Clip 1 (6:43): https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/23517
Clip2 (6:16): https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/clip/23518
The BBC’s rural affairs programme Countryfile (first broadcast on 9th October 2016) looked at ongoing issues with TB infection cattle populations. The topic was covered in two sections. The first focuses on the current tests for TB infection. The second looks more closely at the science being used to develop new tests and better vaccines against TB. Continue reading
Swaziland has declared the current TB epidemic a national emergency
Broadcaster: BBC 4
Reviewed by Emma Sterling
“It’s very difficult to cure XDR because we’re just giving what we have on the table. The reality of XDR is that it’s almost incurable.”
(WARNING: Distressing content): BBC 4’s long-format (90 minute) documentary TB: Return of the Plague, reports on the fight against tuberculosis (TB) in Swaziland, the country with the highest rate of infection in the world. Continue reading
“Eat your Christmas dinner and don’t worry”
Broadcaster: BBC News
Review by Emma Sterling
Bacteria resistant to the “last resort” antibiotic colistin have been found in the UK. Public Health England says the threat to human health is low. Clive Myrie speaks to health correspondent James Gallagher in this 2 minute clip.
The colistin-resistant bacteria were first reported on a farm in China in November 2015 and have since been found in Africa and other parts of Europe. Chinese researchers have found the mcr-1 gene that is responsible for this resistance.
Gallagher stresses that this does not mean these bacteria are unbeatable or that a bacterial apocalypse is nigh (we hope his “Eat your Christmas dinner and don’t worry” does not become the antibacterial version of Michael Fish’s famous promise that a hurricane was not on the way). Those that are resistant to colistin are currently susceptible to other antibiotics, but the discovery raises the spectre of an entirely resistant infection. If this was to occur then routine surgery and cancer therapies might be rendered unsafe.
For more on the story see the BBC News website, and for more scientific detail this article from Nature.
What risks do we have of catching the Ebola virus?
Broadcaster: BBC 1
Review by Will Channell
In this half-hour documentary, Medical doctor and researcher Chris Van Tulleken, investigates the epidemiology of the Ebola virus; with particular focus on the 2014 outbreak in West Africa, and the potential for the virus to get into the UK. This is a useful programme offering both public information on an important current affair and for use as an educational tool in the area of viral physiology and epidemiology.
The programme starts by giving background information on the outbreak, before quickly introducing ideas on how the British government are tackling it. Van Tulleken explores the secretive research facilities at Porton Down and the highly secure laboratories in which the Ebola virus is studied (http://bobnational.net/record/292484, 4 minute clip).
Using interviews combined with computer graphics, he guides the viewer through the physiology of the virus, explaining areas relevant to the virus’ pathogenicity. Following this the viewer is guided through the symptoms and treatment of Ebola using further interviews with people who have first-hand experience of the recent epidemic, including British survivor nurse Will Pooley and MSF doctor Javid Abdelmoneim.
Van Tulleken then draws the documentary to a close by detailing transmission of the virus. The emphasis is on reassuring the public of the improbability of infection in the UK. Several factors about the biology of Ebola make it relatively difficult to catch – it is not (currently) contagious by airborne transmission, you need to have contact with the bodily fluids of someone who has the disease.
Any undergraduate microbiologists studying either the Ebola virus or viral epidemiology in general would find this documentary interesting. Despite only being half an hour long the show offers detailed information that would be useful as either a learning or revision tool. In addition to this it walks through the career roles of various research or healthcare scientists.
People interested in this programme might also benefit from the more recent documentary Outbreak: The truth about Ebola.
From time to time we will use BiologyOnTheBox to aggregate coverage on the same story from a number of different broadcast sources. This is one such post.
In 2014, David Cameron established a Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, under the chairmanship of economist Jim O’Neill (the man previously credited with coining the acronym BRIC to group together the emerging economies in Brazil, Russia, India and China). In December 2014 The review published their first report Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations followed in February 2015 with their second, Tackling a Global Health Crisis: Initial steps.
The press coverage described below comes from 14th May 2015, the day on which the Review published their most important report to date, Securing New Drugs for Future Generations: The pipeline of antibiotics. Publication of the report garnered widespread coverage, including the news items documented here. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but reflects the kinds of issues raised across the day (programmes are listed here in chronological order).
This file is actually a splice of two sections from the programme; a prefilmed package in which Fergus Walsh (1:50) gives background to the situation and includes an interview a woman who is immunocompromised following transplant surgery and therefore reliant on effective antimicrobials. The second part is one of the many interviews conducted with Jim O’Neill over the course of the day. He emphasises that this is a global problem, needing a global solution and that China may play a crucial role in their forthcoming role as chair of the G20. I was struck by his use of the notion of “enlightened self-interest” as a motivator for the pharma industry to become re-engaged in antimicrobial production. Continue reading