Broadcaster: BBC Radio 4
Genre: Panel discussion, Fire-side chat
In this special episode of the BBC radio programme All in the mind (28 mins), host Claudia Hammond discusses the basis of memory formation with three leading researchers Tim Bliss, Graham Collingridge and Richard Morris who have been major players in developing our understanding of memory.
Tim Bliss draws attention to Donald Hebb’s pivotal book The Organization of Behavior and the aphorism “Cells that fire together, wire together”. Graham Collingridge then introduces the notion of long-term potentiation (LTP) as the molecular basis of memory, and particularly the role played by NMDA receptors in learning and AMPA receptors in memory. Errors in the functioning of any of hundreds of proteins can have detrimental impact on memory. Under-activation of LTP can be a contributory factor to schizophrenia. Continue reading
Broadcaster: BBC Radio 4
Review by Emma Sterling
“Circadian rhythms are a biological version of a clock inside humans and all other animals, plants and quite possibly in almost every living cell…These rhythms are a response to the most predictable condition of life on earth, that is, dark at night and bright during the day.”
“Circadian rhythms are one of the best examples of how genes relate to behaviour.”
In this episode of his series In Our Time (41 minutes), Melvyn Bragg talks with Professors Russell Foster, Debra Skene and Steve Jones about circadian rhythms, what they are and how they affect behaviour in humans and other organisms.
The programme includes a brief explanation about the subcellular process involved in circadian rhythms. In humans this takes place in what is described as the ‘master pacemaker’, formally known as the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). This is a group of 50,000 cells located in the hypothalamus that are essential for producing the rhythm. Approximately 12-14 genes and their protein products are involved in the molecular feedback loop with an oscillation of approximately 24 hrs. In some individuals these oscillations are slightly longer, in others slightly less. These differences can affect whether that person is a morning or evening person. Other factors that can affect these oscillations include polymorphisms in the genes that control this process, and external factors such as food, drink and caffeine but none of the aforementioned are as important as light. Continue reading
The first film in the re-launched franchise is rich in ethical dilemmas
Broadcaster: Film 4
Year: 2014 (cinema release 2011)
Genre: Film, Fiction, Science Fiction
Rise of the Planet of the Apes is the first of the re-launched film series (followed by the vastly inferior Dawn of the Planet of the Apes). The film is a veritable feast of bioethics issues. To find out more please take a visit to our sister site Bioethicsbytes (follow this link). The IMDb page for the film can be found via this link.
More details about the potential uses of this film for teaching can be found at Bioethicsbytes
Following a public vote, the money was eventually awarded to the battle against antibiotic resistance
Broadcaster: BBC 2
Review by Lorna McCall
Although 2014 may have been the first time many people had heard of it, the Longitude Prize is not new. In fact it was the combination of the 300th anniversary of the prize and the 50th anniversary of the Horizon TV programme that led to this highly publicised competition to find a worthy winner of £10 million pounds to make a significant impact in tackling one of six key problems: antibiotic resistance, paralysis, malnutrition, carbon emission from jet engines, inadequate supply of fresh water and living with dementia.
This summary focuses on the four most biologically-related topics. Each section is available as a specific clip (click on subheadings below for links).
Antibiotics (7.5 minute segment, starting at 05:28)
The first area of research discussed in the programme relates to appropriate use of antibiotics (see this link for clip). The rise of antibiotic resistance over the years means that 5000 patients in the UK already die every year due to treatment being ineffective. It is important to have antibiotics in order to prevent small infections becoming deadly; or to prevent infection in the first instance for example during routine surgeries. Continue reading